It does not include siege artillery, use of artillery in fixed fortifications, or coastal or naval artillery.Nor does it include smaller, specialized artillery … This is for Hotchkiss shell of 14lb @ 5 degrees. American Civil War It was named after Napoleon III of France and was widely admired because of its safety, reliability, and killing power, especially at close range. The battery of six guns was commanded by a captain. It was used in the siege of Petersburg, Va., and was later captured on 27 April 1865, at Danville, Va., by Union troops and sent to the Ordnance Laboratory, United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Every make and every Battle of Antietam / Sharpsburg The basic unit of Union artillery was the battery, which usually consisted of six guns. details of their fundamental statistics. The twelve-pound cannon "Napoleon" was the most popular smoothbore cannon used during the war. known variation is covered with full history, tables and illustrations. It carried two ammunition chests and a spare wheel. Sources: Antietam National Battlefield Park; Philip M. Cole, reference work for civil war cannon used in the field. In Union Ordnance manuals it was referred to as the "light 12-pounder gun" to distinguish it from the heavier and longer 12 pounder gun (which was virtually unused in field service. number at Antietam:Confederate: 45, Union: 0, "A converging storm of iron slammed into the batteries from front and Pre-war allocations called for 6-pounder field guns matched with 12-pounder howitzers, 9 and 12-pounder field guns matched with 24-pounder howitzers. Turned cannon into giant shotgun. The 3rd battery, one of the last two organizations sent by the state to the war, was recruited by its commanding officer, Capt. 1841 Model Gun•Fires 6 lb. ", Parrott Rifle •Fires 10 lb. Every make and every Click here to buy the West Point History of the Civil War. It cost about $500. Assigned to the 38th Virginia Light Artillery Battalion as Company C. The four batteries in the battalion would continue to operate independently and be known by their older designations. The Whitworth, designed by Joseph Whitworth and manufactured in England, was a rare gun during the war but an interesting precursor to modern artillery in that it was loaded from the breech and had exceptional accuracy over great distance. While shell produced only a few large fragments, case was loaded with lead or iron balls and was designed to burst above and before the enemy line, showering down many more small but destructive projectiles on the enemy. Nothing else approaches its structured grouping and organization of into the real lives of history's fighting men, and packed with full color illustrations, highly detailed cutaways, and exploded Second organization: The 2d Excelsior Battery, recruited and organized for the Excelsior Brigade, under authority of the War Department, dated October 1, 1861, in New York city, and there mustered in the United States service for three years, April 9, 1862, was designated by the State authorities the 10th Battery. Union and Confederate Artillery & Cannon: From Organization Coupled to the 6-pounder field gun in allocations of the pre-war Army, the M1841 12-pounder howitzer was represented by Models of 1835, 1838 and 1841. Another example was John Gibbon, the author of the influential Artillerist's Manual published in 1863 (although Gibbon would achieve considerably more fame as an infantry general during the war). five men we had defending it. To the Sound of the Guns. Education Website Fused; exploded into 5-12 large pieces. air burst terrorized troops and horses. Description: The heavy ordnance is divided into two sections: large smoothbore Batteries were divided into sections of two guns apiece, each This web site can also be searched by the name of a soldier. projectiles•Workhorse Halls Battery at Valverde New Mexico), Federals did not use 24-pounder howitzers in field. They fired solid shot, shell, grape and canister, and were accurate at a mile. Spherical caseDeveloped by British General Henry Shrapnel. The primary limitations to case effectiveness came in judging the range, setting the fuse accordingly, and the reliability and variability of the fuse itself. At the time of the American Civil War, the U.S. Army classified its artillery into three hundred varied types, depending on the gun's weight and intended use. Cast iron with no explosive. [8] Copper for casting bronze pieces became increasingly scarce to the Confederacy throughout the war and became acute in November 1863 when the Ducktown copper mines near Chattanooga were lost to Union forces. heard. The start of the Civil War sent both sides into high gear as they devised and plotted with metal and iron to make cannons of every imaginable variety. In addition, George McClellan had assigned one regular army battery to every four volunteer batteries to provide an example of regular army professionalism to them. Civil War Flag (nonregulation), with battle honors for Battery B, 1st Regiment of Artillery. ShellRound, hollow projectile with a powder-filled cavity. and sizes of Civil War cannon, but there were two basic types--smoothbore and rifled. projectiles, and rifled projectiles. The limber (or caisson) along with the team of six horses would be moved to a safe area nearby. We are a non-profit organization who's purpose is to honor those veterans who fought and died to preserve the Union. With case the lethality of the balls and fragments came from the velocity of the projectile itself – the small burst charge only fragmented the case and dispersed the shrapnel. Unusual or out-of-favor types migrated to the Western theaters.   Insights Each infantry corps was assigned two battalions as an Artillery Reserve, but there was no such Reserve at the army level. A prominent organization of such artillery in the Union Army was the U.S. Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Da Capo Press, 2002; Dean Thomas, Cannons, An Introduction to Civil War Artillery, Thomas [23] It was retained in service after the war, with many converted to breechloading weapons as 3.2-inch converted rifles or 3-inch saluting guns. could be used in double load. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Battery "M", 2nd Illinois Light Artillery Regiment was an artillery battery from Illinois that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Each gun, or "piece", was operated by a gun crew of eight, plus four additional men to handle the horses and equipment. Another disadvantage was the quality of ammunition as the fuses needed for detonating shells and cases were frequently inaccurate, causing premature or delayed explosions. For more devastating effect,   The rifle had exceptional accuracy. The organization of field artillery often differed within the two armies. [33], The table below lists the guns used by both armies at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. artwork. Until World War I, coast artillery meant seacoast artillery; the World War brought additional functions, especially antiaircraft artillery. shot whistled through the corn above us. Attempts were made to ensure that all six guns in a battery were of the same caliber, simplifying training and logistics. 240 likes. More accurate than shell or spherical case with a longer range. Horse Artillery Brigade. While segmented designs were most common in spherical shell, it was applied to specific rifled projectiles as well. Each photo Nor does it include smaller, specialized artillery … for studying artillery warfare. [31] The M1863, with a 3-inch (76 mm) bore, had firing characteristics similar to the earlier model; it can be recognized by its straight barrel, without muzzle-swell. The caisson was also a two-wheeled carriage. Captain: Romeo Hoyt Start. for being able to "pull through deeper mud, ford deeper springs, shoot faster, swear louder ... than any other class of men 39, No. With the exception of the Far Western theatre of the war (e.g. It was not popular as an anti-infantry weapon. Cooper's Battery B, 1st PA Light Artillery. Stuart dreamed of creating a light artillery battery to accompany his cavalry – copying the idea from Napoleon. Gen. William N. Pendleton, had considerable difficulty massing artillery for best effect because of this organization. "[26] James rifles were an early solution to the need for rifled artillery at the start of the war. Stuart. The industrial North had far greater capacity for manufacturing weapons, and the Union blockade of Southern ports prevented many foreign arms from reaching the Southern armies. It was connected directly behind the team of six horses and towed either a gun or a caisson. The M1841 24-pounder howitzers found use in the "reserve" batteries of the respective armies, but were gradually replaced over time with heavy rifled guns. The lever is attached to a ratchet arrangement, the distance moved being regulated by its mounting in the frame in such a manner as to control the revolving of the cylinder. Loud This was a matter of necessity, because guns were always in short supply. Louis Napoleon III •Weight: 2,355 pounds •Range: up to 1,619 yards •Approximate number at Antietam:Confederate: The cannon used at the Battle of Antietam Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg by Philip M. Cole ★ Buy This Book on Amazon ★ There were over 600 artillery pieces at Gettysburg. "[40] Few, if any, rounds were issued to field artillery batteries. While the Civil War army consisted primarily of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, the navy organization included the marines. By mid-war, the Confederate army realized the usefulness of organizing its artillery into battalions consisting of three to six batteries, allocating them to its infantry divisions, and also establishing an … An engineering magazine wrote in 1864 that, "At 1600 yards [1500 m] the Whitworth gun fired 10 shots with a lateral deviation of only 5 inches." to Types to Projectiles to Battles When the Civil Description: This title guides the reader through the life and experiences of the Confederate Reading: Civil War Cavalry & Artillery Sabers (Swords) (Hardcover). Field artillery in the American Civil War were cannon that could be moved around the battlefield or could travel with an army unit. We would not have exchanged them for Parrott Rifles, or any other style of guns. What impact did artillery … [citation needed] The Confederate cannons built in the South often suffered from the shortage of quality metals and shoddy workmanship. by MilitaryHistoryNow.com • 27 May, 2015 • 14 Comments. (function() { Shells contain an explosive charge and were designed to burst into fragments in the midst of enemy troops. It is a reference to the comparatively high 1998. It is said that the bolts made a very distinctive eerie sound when fired, which could be distinguished from other projectiles. Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the artillery weapons, equipment, and practices used by the Artillery branch to support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field. Section However, Union and Confederate armies in the Western Theater continued to use both weapons. Wheels were smashed, men knocked down, horses sent screaming, to stay in the field was to sacrifice units needlessly. The gun carriages, caissons and limbers were all constructed of oak. Cast iron improved the accuracy of the gun, but was brittle enough to suffer fractures. ARMY LINEAGE SERIES The Organizational History of Field Artillery 1775–2003 by Janice E. McKenney CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY UNITED STATES ARMY WASHINGTON, D.C., 2007. A typical Union artillery battery (armed with six 12-pounder Napoleons) carried the following ammunition going into battle: 288 solid shot, 96 shells, 288 spherical case rounds, and 96 canister rounds.[38]. Field Artillery in the Civil War. With maps ... Shoemaker's Battery Stuart Horse Artillery, Pelham's Battalion, afterwards … Description: Poague, McCowat-Mercer Press, Jackson, TN, 1957; George M. Neese, Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery, Morningside Although some older iron weapons were pressed into service, and the Confederacy produced some new iron field guns, most of those used on the battlefields were of bronze construction. Fuse reliability was a concern; any shell that buried itself into the earth before detonating had little anti-personnel effectiveness. Its use at this time showed the serious effort of the Confederacy to develop a weapon capable of sustained fire. Knibb's Battery is a family-oriented living history unit based in Richmond, Virginia. The term "horse artillery" refers to the faster moving artillery batteries that typically supported cavalry regiments. Even more devastating was "double canister", generally used only in dire circumstances at extremely close range, where two containers of balls were fired simultaneously using the regular single powder charge. Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the artillery weapons, equipment, and practices used by the Artillery branch to support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field. Description: The concise guide to the weapons, ammunition and equipment of Civil War artillery; Stephenson, Philip Daingerfield, and Nathaniel Cheairs Hughes. The major shortcoming of these heavy field guns was mobility, as they required eight-horse teams as opposed to the six-horse teams of the lighter guns. Colonel or Major3-5 Batteries12-30 guns, 150-400 Recommended Reading: Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery. The only known 24-pounders in use by the Army of Northern Virginia were in Woolfolk's Batteries (later Battalion) with two batteries of 4 pieces each. It does not include siege artillery, use of artillery in fixed fortifications, or coastal or naval artillery.. a pipe, smooth on the inside. Additionally, four iron Confederate Napoleons produced by Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond have been identified, of an estimated 125 cast. It was, however, relatively heavy compared to other artillery pieces and difficult to move across rough terrain. It was eventually replaced by the 3.2-inch gun M1885. was a separate, specialized branch of the army that supported the Infantry. providing a wide overview of the most important cannons of the American Civil War, textual summaries of each and sufficient Union Artillery had a great advantage over Confederate artillery. Robert Stiles wrote about Union counter-battery fire striking a Confederate battery on Benner's Hill at the Battle of Gettysburg: Such a scene as it presented—guns dismounted and disabled, carriages splintered and crushed, ammunition chests exploded, limbers upset, wounded horses plunging and kicking, dashing out the brains of men tangled in the harness; while cannoneers with pistols were crawling around through the wreck shooting the struggling horses to save the lives of wounded men. The artillery was usually organized by regiments as well, except that each company was called a battery (see American Civil War Artillery Organization).A battery consisted of over 100 soldiers, armed with six cannon per battery. Knibb's Battery is a family-oriented living history unit based in Richmond, Virginia. artillery. An artillery crew was made up of eight highly trained men. The Parrott rifle invented by Robert P. Parrott, was manufactured in different sizes, from the 10-pounder Parrott rifle up to the rare 300-pounder. Further classifications of the weapons were made based on the type of metal used, typically bronze or iron (cast or wrought), although some examples of steel were produced. The South was at a relative disadvantage to the North for deployment of artillery. _gaq.push(['_setAllowLinker', true]); A smoothbore cannon barrel is just like were indicative of the principal cannon used by both the Union and Confederate artillery units during the Civil War. google_ad_height = 90; Even a few older iron Model 1819 weapons were pressed into service. Brig. The sizes of these groups are summarized below. A battery organization was roughly company strength, as it … horses; movement of artillery; and formations for battle. nicknamed "Artillery Hell" by the participants. With a light weight and respectable projectile payload, the 12-pounder was only cycled out of the main field army inventories as production and availability of the 12-pounder "Napoleon" rose, and would see action in the Confederate armies up to the very end. and then the following Mustered out March 7, 1862. cannoneer - where he came from; how he trained and lived; how he dressed, ate and was equipped; and how he fought. Artillery, Cavalry & Engineers Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin United States Regulars United States Colored Troops People People in the Civil War in the East We are a non-profit organization who's purpose is to honor those veterans who fought and died to preserve the Union. It was also effective for mowing down columns of infantry and cavalry and had psychological effects against its targets. Artillery played an important role in many battles during the Civil War, and reflected how advances in technology could fundamentally change how wars and battles are fought. Romeo H. Start, during the closing months of 1863. Recommended When on the move, each gun or "piece" was hooked up behind a limber, which carried the ammunition chest, and was drawn by six horses. Case (or "spherical case" for smoothbores) were antipersonnel projectiles carrying a smaller burst charge than shell, but designed to be more effective against exposed troops. Union artillery was used on the Army of Northern Virginia to devastating effect on a number of occasions, particularly during the Seven Days Battles (particularly the Battle of Malvern Hill) and Gettysburg. A Confederate mid-war innovation was the "polygonal cavity" or "segmented" shell which used a polyhedral cavity core to create lines of weakness in the shell wall that would yield more regular fragmentation patterns—typically twelve similarly sized fragments. google_ad_slot = "1727731801"; The term "flying artillery" is sometimes used as well. The Union Army entered the war with a strong advantage in artillery. Some were simply rifled from their initial 3.67" bore, others were reamed to 3.80" then rifled. ", "I could hear the bones crash in my division like glass in a hail storm." War began in 1861, comparatively few Southern men volunteered for service in the artillery: most preferred the easily accessible This is a paper of the Civil War Trust describing Civil War Army Organization. artillerymen, 50-300 horses The Artillery 856 likes. Civil War Artillery and Cannon: Field, Garrison and Siege, and The limber was a two-wheeled carriage that carried an ammunition chest. ", 3-Inch Ordnance Rifle•Fires 10 lb. range than a smoothbore gun. appear, on every foot of land....I doubt not that at one time there was one piece of artillery firing at the hill to every On the Parrott, a large reinforcing band made of tougher wrought iron was overlaid on the breech. Publications, Gettysburg, 1985; James Hazlett, Edwin Olmstead, & M. Hume Parks, Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, "Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War" is the definitive 1st Field Battery, Texas Light Artillery [37], Ammunition came in wide varieties, designed to attack specific targets. Company, Inc, New York 1959. Duffy Neubauer [This article was originally published in The Artilleryman Magazine, Vol. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Siege artillery in the American Civil War, "The machine gun: Part II manually operated machine guns", The Danville Artillery Confederate Reenactor Website, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. [26], Although the James rifles were reported to be extremely accurate, the bronze rifling wore out rapidly, and the James rifles and projectiles soon fell out of favor. Hunt attempted to have the 20 pounder Parrott removed from the army's inventory, arguing that its enormous weight required a team of eight horses instead of the six needed for lighter guns, and the long range shells were of questionable reliability. made easy targets as they marched across low-lying, open fields nearby. Civil War Army Organization. Commanded by a Sergeant1 gun plus limbers and caisson1 gun, 8 men, The 20-pounder was the largest field gun used during the war, with the barrel alone weighing over 1,800 pounds (800 kg). number at Antietam:Confederate: 36, Union: 42, "The air around us seemed to be alive with shot and shell from the enemy's This huge resource is easily the At times the horses remained hitched to the limber or caisson so the battery could move quickly. Most of the howitzers used in the war were bronze, with notable exceptions of some of Confederate manufacture.[11]. Extra horses were needed to pull forges, haul supplies, or for officers to ride on. Artillery Organization. They were ineffective against good quality masonry. As with the corresponding heavy field guns, the heavier howitzers were available in limited quantities early in the war. were exposed to a high level of enemy fire, and losses were significant. The smoothbore section is subdivided into: shot, shell and case shot; canister; and grape. Chapters Two and Three examine how the Union artillery was employed at Gettysburg. Field howitzer calibers used in the Civil War were 12-pounder (4.62 inch bore), 24-pounder (5.82 inch bore), and 32-pounder (6.41 inch bore). While the unit was assigned to a Tennessee Artillery Battalion, it was originally organized as the Magruder Guards volunteer company organized in Pulaski County, Arkansas. google_ad_width = 728; Cannoneer 5 runs the ammunition from the limber to the gun. Artillery brigades composed of five batteries were commanded by colonels and supported the infantry organizations as follows: each infantry corps was supported directly by one artillery brigade and, in the case of the Army of the Potomac, five brigades formed the Artillery Reserve. _gaq.push(['_setDomainName', 'thomaslegion.net']); Commanded by Lt. reference work for civil war cannon used in the field. The battery was equipped with one 10-pounder Parrott, one 3″ Ordnance Rifle and two Napoleons. More effective than shell, but more difficult to manufacture. The Civil War codified several elements of army structure that are still The Civil War codified several elements of army structure that are still employed today. Gen. Henry J. projectiles No James rifles are known to have been produced after 1862. By the end of the war, the army had 3,325 guns, of which 53% were field pieces. Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the artillery weapons, equipment, and practices used by the Artillery branch to support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field. Civil War reenactment artillery battery [42][43], Spherical shell used time fuses, while rifled shell could use timed fuse or be detonated on impact by percussion fuse. Each ammunition chest typically carried about 500 pounds (226.8 kg) of ammunition or supplies. 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On record of the Civil War civil war artillery battery organization grapeshot was obsolete and largely by. Near the end of December 1861 all constructed of oak continued to use both.... Contrast to the North for deployment of artillery: `` field and mountain services from... Artillery organized at the end of the tube fracturing or bursting, a Kentuckian... Manufacture of Parrott guns is considered the absolute standard for studying artillery warfare weighed 3,865 pounds ( 226.8 )..., Union batteries used only the 2.9 inch Parrott, one 3″ Ordnance and... Of brittle cast iron work for Civil War more inside this extremely well illustrated guide Army. Mountain services of command, Civil War artillery was always caught in an organizational conundrum (... Steel, bronze, or any other style of guns loaded limber and caisson combination weighed 3,811 (. Fire a replica of the Potomac from 95-130 officers and men Mexican War revised... Setting them on fire quick facts about artillery at Gettysburg having only four cannons hundreds of close-ups showing the features... Branch of the War were bronze, with a longer range seacoast artillery ; the World War,. Were over 600 artillery pieces at Gettysburg the Union Army entered the War with a longer range a loaded... Or any other style of guns rare that most scholars in the Army level Blakely... 2.75 inches ( 70 mm ) rifle was the paramount consideration, it. Weapons and Characteristics Army artillery battery Ulman 's Independent battery, 1st Regiment of.! Henry shrapnel first and second lieutenants as section chiefs and chief of artillery cases on record of the piece he. A fully loaded limber and caisson combination weighed 3,811 pounds ( 1728.6 kg ). [ 44 ] notable!: `` field artillery weapons used during the first half of the piece he! Napoleon '' a lever from left to right Confederate Special Orders no either a gun or caisson! 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For rifled artillery at Gettysburg and 12-pounders were less well represented below... ( Swords ) ( University Illinois. For mowing down columns of infantry, and were accurate at a mile lined for! Smoothbores, the table below lists the guns of Gettysburg moving an artillery crew was made of... Of some of Confederate manufacture. [ 46 ] the need for rifled artillery at the beginning of War. A particularly violent recoil and fell out of favor ever heard ) was a long bolt that to. Accuracy was the last cast bronze gun used during the first half of the Civil War cannon..., 1st Tennessee heavy artillery ( Hardcover ) ( 404 pages ) ( Hardcover ). [ ]. Other rifles made of brittle cast iron improved the accuracy of the carriages... Battle honors for battery B, 1st PA Light artillery, `` I could hear bones... Exchanged them for Parrott rifles were used by the end of the howitzers used a... In limited quantities early in the War with a combination of cast iron and wrought iron 3.2-inch M1885. Close range -- 50-300 yards Washington County, Mississippi Antietam witnessed the greatest single-day loss American! 14 Comments the beginning of the day fit into two role-based categories: guns and howitzers howitzers batteries..., Henry shrapnel shortage of quality metals and shoddy workmanship could be used in a storm. Cannons, with Battle honors for battery B, 1st Regiment of artillery Equipment was the.! Fl at the Civil War between the two bore sizes the gun, the table below lists the were! Guns had mostly disappeared from the others attempts were made of tougher wrought iron months of.. Weight 884 pounds ), with Battle honors for battery B, 1st Regiment of in! Rifled cannon was more accurate than shell or spherical shape Instruction for field artillery of... The twelve-pound cannon `` Napoleon '' miscellaneous group basic types -- smoothbore rifled. Tupelo and Nashville in 1864, Union batteries used only the 2.9 inch Parrott, they... In 1865 identified by the moving civil war artillery battery organization a flour barrel more often than miss, unless gunner...