Research to improve school health programmes: Evaluation research and expert opinion is analyzed and consolidated to describe the nature and effectiveness of school health programmes. Each advocacy document makes a strong case for addressing an important health problem, identifies components of a comprehensive school health programme, and provides guidance in integrating the issue into the components. For example, WHO’s work, led by Suhrcke and Paz Nieves (2011), showed the negative influence of ill-health (obesity, sleep problems, anxiety and depression) and potentially harmful health behaviours (alcohol consumption, cannabis and tobacco) on academic performance of children and adolescents. Examples of actions that a school can take 6 Accountability 7 Enquiries 8 2 . There is a growing body of evidence on the link between health and education on the one hand and effectiveness of school health promotion on the other hand. The girls revealed greater gains in social awareness and greater reductions of the levels of social isolation and social anxiety when compared with boys. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Conversely, however, implementation is argued as being a complex process, which defies such linear one-dimensional thinking. The health promoting school aims at achieving healthy lifestyles for the total school population by developing supportive environments conducive to the promotion of health. Results like this highlight the importance of both school-based and out-of-school physical activity, and as the authors bring out, should have implications all the way up to the government policy level. Moreover, the health promotion activities implemented at schools were also examined. OECD’s work (2010) highlights the contribution of education, both in improving health, well-being and quality of life and strengthening civic and social engagement. Three main factors for the success and the quality of these initiatives were identified: (1) involvement of the school community as a whole and addressing all the aspects of school life; (2) addressing the school social environment (relationships between pupils and staff, among pupils, among staff and between parents and schools); (3) development of children’s life skills. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed by experts working in the field of health promoting schools, and the reliability by test-retest method by student sample. For research, the first challenge pertains to transferability, because with the existence of such variables and with limited options to control for them, streamlined outcomes are in reality difficult to predict. The evidence base related to the contribution of the school setting to the improvement of children’s health and well-being is strong. The Initiative is designed to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools. ... volunteers are expected to sign that they have understood the H&S School’s policy in the presence of the trainer. health agencies). Change to service delivery from 1st January 2020. The close relationship between these fields is a product of the interaction of school management and educational practices. Hence, the focus on two behaviours at the same time appeared too complex for informal diffusion through peer networks. Thus, the intervention programme and its content remain the same, however, more context-specific thinking is applied to the implementation process, and the types of achievements that might be expected from it (Darlington, 2016). CORRECT (P. 86): C. The first action the nurse should take using the nursing process is assessment. A whole school approach to health promotion was not implemented systematically into schools’ policies. Stigma and lack of understanding about mental disorders are major barriers to seeking help and promoting better mental health. The new paradigm which provided a basis for the health promoting school approach, includes health education and is viewed as any activity undertaken to improve and/or protect the health and well-being of all school users, including students, teaching and non-teaching staff. school health promotion in December 1994, which had been organized by WHO in collaboration with the National Centre for Health Promotion at the University of Sydney and which had a focus on Pacific island countries. The factors preventing and facilitating implementation of health promoting school practices were explored by Mcisaac and colleagues. * It is a broader concept than health education and it includes provision and activities relating to: healthy school policies, the schools physical and social environment, These are: developing and maintaining a democratic and participatory school community; developing partnerships between the policy makers of the education and health sectors; ensuring students and parents feel they have some sense of ownership in the life of the school; implementing a diversity of learning and teaching strategies; providing adequate time for class-based activities, organisation and coordination, and out of class activities; exploring health issues within the context of the students’ lives and community; utilising strategies that adopt a whole school approach rather than primarily a classroom learning approach; providing ongoing capacity-building opportunities for teachers and associated staff; creating an excellent social environment which fosters open and honest relationships within the school community; ensuring a consistency of approach across the school and between the school, home and wider community; developing both a sense of direction in the goals of the school and clear and unambiguous leadership and administrative support; providing resources that complement the fundamental role of the teacher and which are of a sound theoretical and accurate factual base; creating a climate where there are high expectations of students in their social interactions and educational attainments. The perspective is intersectoral since the core business of schools is focused on educational outcomes, rather than the reduction of health problems. During the school year 2012–2013, 34 000 schools were identified as health promoting schools in the European region (SHE, 2013). The positive effects were stably effective in the second cohort, except for social anxiety. Plan and prepare Emergency operations plans: review, update, and implement EOPs. It also stresses that families and the community should be involved (see Sormunen et al., 2013). Based on this visual method, they compared the schools that were formally implementing a health promoting school approach with schools that we not. (World Health Organisation, 1993). McNamara et colleagues present a Canadian perspective for school recess, social connectedness and health by bringing the context of school recess into the conversation of Health Promoting Schools. (, Moynihan S., Jourdan D., Mannix Mcnamara P. (, Sormunen M., Tossavainen K., Turunen H. (, St Leger L., Young I., Blanchard C., Perry M. (, Waters E., de Silva-Sanigorski A., Hall B.J., Brown T., Campbell K.J., Gao Y. et al. It is assumed that when it comes to the evaluation of implementation, two options exist: (i) either the programme is delivered as planned, or not and (ii) either it delivers expected outcomes, or not. Leadership and management practices • Secure political support and leadership from the health … Health-Promoting School, health is created by students, teachers, parents, and other community members who are: • Caring for themselves and others • Making decisions about and taking control of conditions and circumstances that affect health • Creating … Of eight schools, four were allocated to intervention schools and four to control schools. Now that your school has decided to start the Health Promoting Schools journey, you're probably wondering what you should expect and what will be expected of your school. However, it seems that there were features related to critical health education containing a holistic understanding of health, the need for critical and plural participation and the importance of community. . The underlying concept of health is more than the traditional WHO definition: ‘a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. Such activities went beyond the scope of traditional health education. The most important actions for school administrators to take before reopening in-person services and facilities are planning and preparing.To best prepare, schools should expect that students, teachers, or staff may contract symptoms consistent with COVID-19, and schools must know what to do when this … However, they found no evidence of effectiveness on fat intake, alcohol and drug use, mental health, violence, and bullying others (Langford et al., 2014). Expected achievements in health promotion and prevention programmes are multi-level and complex, often manifesting on a long-term basis, and encompassing quite complex interactions between people and their life ecosystems. Participation continues as a theme in the Griebler and colleagues’ article. Its development was inspired by the Ottawa Charter presented at the first international conference on health promotion in 1986, which helped changing the context for health promotion significantly. Healthy School Award schemes, which provide structured frameworks, health-related targets and external support, represent one way of helping schools become health promoting, a factor identified in the UK Health of the Nation Government White Paper (1992) as facilitating the achievements of stated targets for prevention. • To facilitate action for health by building health knowledge and skills in the cognitive, social and behavioural domains – The school is a setting where health issues and perspectives are used to complement and enrich education priorities e.g. It also provides guidance to schools and local authorities on how to promote engagement and motivation, including among those who may be at risk of poor attendance. There is substantial congruence between three fields: the research and evaluation literature on school health; what constitutes successful learning and teaching in schools; what makes schools effective in achieving educational, health and social outcomes. Please note: This outline is simply a guide. Although mental health is a fundamental component of health, recognition of mental disorders and awareness about its importance is limited. All school employees should also be aware that they are almost always being watched by students and other community members. They suggest that schools need to include recess in planning to contribute the development of healthy children and of a healthy society, because health promotion involves creating supportive environments such as schools to optimize physical, mental and social well-being. Depending on individual countries, health is not taken into account in educational policies in the same way. Bell and colleagues applied a school-based smoking prevention programme into obesity prevention intervention among 12–13 year olds. Rosas concludes that the complex modern school environments and re-conceptualization of health promoting school concept would benefit from system thinking and complexity characteristics and system science approach. Building capacities for peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, equity, social justice, sustainable development. The health promoting school approach has been adapted in many European countries, Australia and New Zealand. Strengthening national capacities: collaboration between health and education agencies is fostered, and countries are helped to develop strategies and programmes to improve health through schools. Implements policies and practices that respect an individual's well being and dignity, provide multiple opportunities for success, and acknowledge good efforts and intentions as well as personal achievements. The papers published in this special edition of Health Promotion International focus on health promoting schools from many different points of view. While countries may differ in nomenclature and structure to varying degrees, similar underpinning principles apply to all and the definition of a Health Promoting School (HPS) provided by the World Health Organisation (WHO 2015) encapsulates these well: ‘a school that is constantly strengthening its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working’. (2011) proposes a new definition of health changing the emphasis towards the ability to adapt and self manage in the face of social, physical, and emotional challenges. For example, classroom sun protection lessons are reinforced and complemented by adequate provision of shade throughout the school and a school sun protection policy that informs parents and encourages … Components and checkpoints are developed in six areas which reflect the major elements of health-promoting schools. From an educational point of view, the school’s contribution to health includes a reference to citizenship and healthy living with a dual purpose: a) to create conditions for pupils’ achievement (such as school environment, school climate, nutrition services, policy and planning, staff competencies, access to social and health services, partnerships) and b) acquiring health competencies for empowerment for healthy decision making (Jourdan, 2011). Influencing health-related behaviours: knowledge, beliefs, skills, attitudes, values, support. The findings suggest that the schools have a lot of potential to act towards healthier communities, if the individuals are engaged to the processes in a sustainable way. making healthy decisions and taking control over life's circumstances. Also in the United States and Canada the ‘Comprehensive School Health Program’ and more recently the ‘Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child’ model are used more frequently. 44. Offer nutrition education consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid to help kids develop healthy eating patterns. It is an advocacy document for the health and education sectors to undertake school health promotion activities based on the evidence of effectiveness. Researchers are organized in the SHE research group with over 85 researchers from 25 countries, each with an interest and commitment in research in school health promotion. It is of great concern that mental health promotion is frequently overlooked as an integral part of health promotion (Desjarlais et al., 1995; WHO, 2001; Lavikainen et al., 2000). increased ownership and health-related effects), effects on school as an organization (e.g. Importantly, the school managers expressed that having a school-health policy was vital to the success of their health promotion work and brought out the need of collaboration with school staff in all developmental intentions. There is strong evidence to support the Health Promoting Schools approach as a best practice framework for school health promotion. Some countries have a long history in implementing health promoting schools while other countries just recently initiated a national health promoting school programme and joined the SHE network. social climate), and improved interactions and social relationships in school among peers and between students and adults. Children and adolescents need to be encouraged for physical activity, either supervised, or non-supervised, since nowadays many factors are competing for their time. It offers opportunities for, and requires commitments to, the provision of a safe and health-enhancing social and physical environment. Strives to provide a healthy environment, school health education, and school health services along with school/community projects and outreach, health promotion programmes for staff, nutrition and food safety programmes, opportunities for physical education and recreation, and programmes for counselling, social support and mental health promotion. A health promoting school is one that constantly strengthens its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working. They have expressed their commitment to the further development, expansion and/or improvement of their national health promoting school programmes (SHE, 2013; Buijis et al., 2014). Central in this programme was the component of training and using student peers to make an everyday impact on other students. The Health Promoting School, networks and links up with other schools in this process and may become a role model for other schools.A sense of ownership of self and the school is established and self respect in reinforced. The authors bring out the non-official status of health promotion in Austrian schools, and acknowledge the individual efforts that often occur behind the implementation. (, Langford R., Bonell C.P., Jones H.E., Pouliou T., Murphy S.M., Waters E. et al. Building capacity to advocate for improved school health programmes: technical documents are generated that consolidate research and expert opinion about the nature, scope and effectiveness of school health programmes. García-Vázquez examined the effect of the HPS programme in schools that are part of the regional SHE network on health behaviours of first-year and fourth-year secondary school students (mean age 12.5 years and 15.8 years, respectively) in Northern Spain, Asturia. Correa-Burrows and colleagues studied the association between the engagement in regular physical activity and the academic performance of school-age children. Health promoting schools focus on: Caring for oneself and others. The nurse should talk with the client first to determine what risk factors the client might have before initiating the appropriate health promotion and disease prevention measures. School health care and health promotion 6 KEY HPS FACTORS 8 KEY IMPLEMENTATION COMPONENTS. It is important that schools promote healthy eating habits through programs and guidelines 1. We publish a series of guidance on school attendance. The political organisation, priorities, degree of decentralisation, organisation and goals of education systems differ from one country to another. In the SHE network a health promoting school is defined as ‘a school that implements a structured and systematic plan for the health, well-being and the development of social capital of all pupils and of teaching and non-teaching staff’ (SHE, 2014). Also, it is difficult to distinguish which of the intervention components contributed most to the beneficial effects observed (Waters et al., 2011). It therefore focuses on promoting health and well-being through increased health literacy, on lifestyles and living conditions, and on the absence of diseases. They highlight the current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to present the pathways between daily school recess and health trajectories. The goal of WHO's Global School Health Initiative is to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". Effective Health Promoting Schools (HPS) make a major contribution to schools achieving their educational and social goals. Creating networks and alliances for the development of health-promoting schools: regional networks for the development of Health-Promoting Schools have been initiated in Europe, Western Pacific and Latin America. Collaboration with other relevant policy areas, for example youth, social and environmental policies and sustainable development is essential. Atilola highlights the need for child and adolescent mental health policy, training also of teachers, school counselors, primary health physicians and social workers in basic restorative child and adolescent mental health services. This study emphasizes the importance of continuing, persistent reinforcing of a health promoting way of thinking and daily actions while educational demands of hectic school life are increasing. It also poses a question how the surrounding community could support schools more in their health promoting practices. In 2013, a survey was conducted among the national coordinators of the SHE network in Europe to gain an overview of current health promoting school policies. creating conditions that are conducive to health (through policies, services, physical/social conditions) building capacities for peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, equity, social justice and sustainable development. These six areas are: school health policies, the school physical environment, the school social environment, community relationships, personal health skills and health services. Rosas analyses system thinking and complexity in relation to health promoting school concept. 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